Or, should I feed my one year old cow’s milk or infant formula?
The Skeptical Son is about to hit one year of age, which brings a few landmarks with it. MMR vaccination, standing up (albeit a little precariously), and a move from specialised (breast or infant formula) milk to regular, unmodified cow’s milk.
This latter point seemed pretty uncontroversial. The UK National Health Service and the American Academy of Pediatrics both recommend feeding cow’s milk to a baby beyond 12 months. The NHS explicitly states: “Infant formula, follow-on formula or growing-up milks are not needed once you baby is 12 months old”.
So I was intrigued to see infant milk formula products specifically targeted at the over one year olds, such as Aptamil 1+yr & 2+yr, Cow & Gate 1-2yr & 2-3yr, Hipp Organic growing up milk (from 12 months), and SMA 1-3yrs.
A look at the scientific literature, in line with the NHS and AAP guidance, backs up a move to cow’s milk at 12 months. Unmodified cow’s milk is not recommended before this age because it contains high levels of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and calcium, and lacks vital nutrients, such as iron, vitamin C, and linoleic acid. As a baby’s diet becomes more varied and complex by the age of one, many of the nutrients previously gained from milk (breast or modified cow’s formula) is obtained from food. An infant can, in most cases, safely move to consuming cow’s milk, and it is only if a specific deficiency develops that they will need targeted supplementation.The NHS’s health information leaflet, however, says: “It is recommended that all babies aged from six months to 5 years are given a supplement that contains vitamins A, C and D, unless they are drinking 500ml (a pint) of infant formula a day (infant formula has vitamins added to it)”. This then brings us back to enriched infant formula.
The infant formula manufacturers appear obliged to acknowledge that breast milk is recommended for young babies (see disclaimer notice*), consistent with the World Health Organization’s guidance. All of them, though, promote their 1 year+ products as, variously, enriched with iron, vitamins C & D, GOS/FOS prebiotics and omega fatty acids. Advertising claims include milk formula that is “nutritionally superior” to cow’s milk, “has been specially developed to help meet the nutritional needs of toddlers”, and will “encourage your toddler’s natural friendly bacteria to thrive”.
So now I’m a little torn. Anaemia, avitaminosis and lactose intolerance are, evidently, serious conditions that need to be addressed, and products need to exist for these cases. But the marketing doesn’t seem in line with the healthcare advice: without looking into it, I was initially left with the impression that the specialised infant formulas represent the gold standard, containing everything that is needed to support my son’s “amazing development” [© Cow & Gate]. The adverts and packaging don’t suggest these products are for cases where a deficiency has been identified, rather it appears to play to the ‘don’t take any chances’ or ‘be on the safe side’ worry of parents. SMA, for instance, says “it is hard to know if they are getting all of the right nutrients they need at this important time”.
I guess this speaks to a wider problem with nutritional supplements, ‘superfoods’ and enriched dietary products, some of which make all manner of claims about health and well-being (see Andy Lewis’ Quackometer for more ‘Confusopoly of Diet’).
Anyway, now for a quick look at money, something that’s precious to many families. A 900g tub of Aptamil 1+ yr costs £8.49 (Sainsbury’s price). This means that a daily intake of 500ml will cost 79p (83.3g formula). An equivalent daily portion of whole cow’s milk costs 26p. Even adding in a multivitamin supplement works out at an extra 13p a day. Over a week this difference amounts to £2.80; over a year it’s a saving of around £145.
I should emphasise that the post-one year milk formulas seem completely legitimate products to sell and I’m far from claiming a conspiracy, but I explore it here simply to question whether their advertising is a little misleading. Of course, dietary products claiming all sorts of health benefits is not a new or isolated phenomenon, but I worry that the baby market particularly plays on the anxiety of parents that inclines them to prove themselves as perfect guardians.
Maybe I’m being overly cynical in suspecting that the manufacturers are being unreasonably opaque. Perhaps I’m too naïve in wishing that promotion of products that affect ours and our babies’ health was more honest. Would it be regulatory overkill to make infant formula products, in the same way as the breastfeeding disclaimer, carry an objective notice about cow’s milk and the current healthcare advice?
And on that ambivalent note, I shall end.
*The common wording across manufacturers’ websites and the prominent positioning of the statement (it is displayed any time one tries to click through to a product for the first time) suggests this is a statutory requirement. This would be interesting if it is, so any light that anyone can shed on this would be appreciated!